Arizona Immigration Law, Part I: More severe control over illegal foreign residents in Japan; “No More Attempts, No More Entry, and No More Stay”

[Author] Vincent A. (ELC Research International) I originally wrote this article eight years ago, i.e., in 2010. So, the story could be partially out of date, but still the gist thereof would be true, I believe. The U.S. Federal District Court has issued an injunction against the Arizona immigration law, enacted in April 2010, which is designed to banish illegal immigrants. Although the enforcement of the entire law is currently postponed, the injunction has been given upon only a few sections of the immigration law such as one which requires police officers to inquire about the immigration status of suspicious persons. The Arizona state government has stated that they will appeal the injunction and will nevertheless enforce sections of the immigration law not blocked by the court ruling. The Arizona immigration law has been criticized harshly as being discriminatory to Hispanics or as infringing upon their human rights, particularly with respect to one section which obliges the police to inquire about someone’s immigration status if illegal immigration is reasonably suspected. For Japanese immigrants like us or Japanese students studying in Canada, however, the Arizona immigration law is not a simple matter to be criticized as discriminatory, since the immigration control in Japan rivals or even surpasses Arizona’s, and the control has been becoming even tighter over the years. [Tags] USA, Arizona Immigration Law, illegal immigrants, immigration control, crackdown, racial discrimination, human right infringement, Hispanics, Japan, Immigration Control and Refugee Recognition Act, Alien Registration Act, illegal employment, illegal foreign resident, illegal stay, overstay, “No More Attempts, No More Entry, and No More Stay”, entry and exit examination, police officers, questioning, residential status, Alien Registration System, Alien Residence Control System, Legal Workers Act, green card, ID, behavioral style

Arizona Immigration Law, Part II: Police Officers’ Questioning, and New Alien Residence Control System in Japan

[Author] Vincent A. (ELC Research International) The Arizona Immigration Law section regarding police officers’ right to stop and question individuals has been the one most criticized as being discriminatory. When we focus on how such a regulation would be understood, in practice, by front-line police officers struggling with everyday criminal behaviour, probably, it would be understood as follows: “When you encounter an alien about whom you are suspicious in regard to the matter of illegal residence, you should question the individual without hesitation about his/her residential eligibility. If the person does not show a verifying document or he/she acts suspiciously, you may arrest the person at once and continue the investigation by taking him/her to the police station.” While the Arizona Immigration Law has been drafted specifically to control what is seen as a burgeoning illegal immigration problem, the expression of the regulation quoted above is far too blunt. It sounds like a police commander’s instructions to officers in the morning briefing before they go on patrol, outlining “today’s crackdown plan.” The regulation can be construed as stating that all foreigners may be regarded as criminals. It is quite insulting to “aliens,” even before one considers the question of whether the regulation is racially discriminatory toward Hispanics. In Japanese culture, courtesy is considered very important, so Japanese people would never formulate what could be considered such “ill-mannered” legislation as the Arizona Immigration Law which was aimed at “guests” who visit Japan from overseas. In fact, the legal structure built around immigration is somewhat more elegant in Japan. [Tags] USA, Arizona Immigration Law, illegal immigrants, immigration control, crackdown, racial discrimination, human right infringement, Hispanics, Japan, Immigration Control and Refugee Recognition Act, Alien Registration Act, illegal employment, illegal foreign resident, illegal stay, overstay, “No More Attempts, No More Entry, and No More Stay”, entry and exit examination, police officers, questioning, residential status, Alien Registration System, Alien Residence Control System, Legal Workers Act, green card, ID, behavioral style

Arizona Immigration Law, Part III: Let’s focus on the most critical issue

[Author] Vincent A. (ELC Research International) In the State of Arizona, in 2007, two years before the Immigration Law passed, an act called the “Legal Workers Act” for regulating illegal employment was passed. According to this act, if a business owner knowingly employs an alien having no work permit, the owner shall be punished by suspension of their business license and probation for a certain period. During the probation period, if the owner again knowingly employs a worker without proper work documents, the business permit will be cancelled. Since this regulation is extraordinarily severe for both of the business owners and undocumented workers, local employers’ associations and human right groups have taken action, resulting in a hearing started last December in the U.S. Supreme Court. The plaintiff’s grounds that the Legal Workers Act is unconstitutional are basically the same as those of the federal government appeal against the Arizona Immigration Law: only the federal government has legal authority over immigration into the U.S. and state governments cannot provide immigration control. On the other hand, currently, at least seven states in the U.S. are going to follow Arizona’s example in order to control illegal immigration. Thus, for good or ill, this law is becoming a model for regulation of illegal immigration in the United States. Furthermore, while in the U.S. every child born in the country has birthright citizenship, more than a dozen states in the U.S are considering cancelling such birthright citizenship for children of illegal immigrants. Now, in Part III, the final part, we will focus on the most critical issue with regard to the Arizona Immigration Law. [Tags] USA, Arizona Immigration Law, illegal immigrants, immigration control, crackdown, racial discrimination, human right infringement, Hispanics, Japan, Immigration Control and Refugee Recognition Act, Alien Registration Act, illegal employment, illegal foreign resident, illegal stay, overstay, “No More Attempts, No More Entry, and No More Stay”, entry and exit examination, police officers, questioning, residential status, Alien Registration System, Alien Residence Control System, Legal Workers Act, green card, ID, behavioral style

Cultural Comparison: Canadian Ice Hockey vs. American Football, Part I

[Author] Vincent A. (ELC Research International) American football originated from rugby football in Britain, evolving in the U.S. into American football as it is seen today, while ice hockey was born and developed in Canada. Currently, both American football and ice hockey are popular sports on the same North America continent, and both are games in which gigantic men collide with each other violently. Then, there is a mystery: very little unnecessary violence occurs in American football, whereas there are lots of gratuitous violent acts in ice hockey. Why are these games so different? The answer is that American football and ice hockey are different not merely in the place where they grew; these are totally different in terms of their evolution as a sport. Namely, football and ice hockey have evolved in different ways due to their historical and cultural backgrounds which are totally different. The development of the former seems very American, whereas that of the latter seems very Canadian. [Tags] cultural comparison, Canada, U.S.A., American football, ice hockey, college athletics, college sports, intercollegiate athletics, cultural background, the U.S. Declaration of Independence, wind of freedom, extracurricular activities, college faculties, violence control, villagers’ game, working man’s sport

The Truth of Victoria Oriental Home [1]

[Author] Michiko Midge Ayukawa, PhD ◆AJ’s Family and Methodist Church —I deplore that the Oriental Home which is a part of the historical fact of the city of Victoria, BC, Canada hasn’t been spoken about openly by the Japanese or Nikkei people. It was seventy years ago that I first heard someone mention the Victoria Oriental Home. It was whispered and was obviously not meant for little ears. There appeared to be something sinister about it. The Oriental Home, a haven for “Oriental” women and children had been created by Methodist women in 1888. [Tags] Oriental Home, Canada, BC, British Columbia, Victoria, Orientals, Chinese, Japanese, Women, Rescue Shelter, Methodist, United Church, picture brides, picture marriage, Pearl Harbor, internment, Mieko Amano, Chikara To Kihin, Strength and Grace, prostitute, Tairiku Nippo, Shohei Nagata, Brothel in Canada, Tomoko Makabe, Ross Bay Cemetery

Cultural Comparison: Canadian Ice Hockey vs. American Football, Part II

[Author] Vincent A. (ELC Research International) American football has been developed in the U.S. as part of college athletics. The greatest factor in the success of college athletics in the U.S. is that America won the Revolutionary War (1775-1783) against Britain. The significance of America winning the Revolutionary War is quite great. The influence thereof was not confined to the political arena. Rather, it deeply influenced the whole American society and peoples’ lives. One example is the success of college athletics in American universities, and American football was developed as a leading sport of such college athletics. [Tags] cultural comparison, Canada, U.S.A., American football, ice hockey, college athletics, college sports, intercollegiate athletics, cultural background, the U.S. Declaration of Independence, wind of freedom, extracurricular activities, college faculties, violence control, villagers’ game, working man’s sport

Cultural Comparison: Canadian Ice Hockey vs. American Football, Part III

[Author] Vincent A. (ELC Research International) College athletics which were budding at American universities early in the 19th century grew soon to be intercollegiate athletics. Namely, it was discovered that intercollegiate athletics lead to commercial profits. Further, the success of intercollegiate athletics, in which students competed in front of a large number of spectators, brought a profit to the university as well. The profit was not merely that the name of the university was spread widely; intercollegiate athletics improved the image of the university. Among all college athletics, football had the largest effect because of its power and physicality. Since the roughness of football was well suited to the mentality of Americans at that time, when they had a preference for toughness and manliness, football gained a wide popularity and took the leading role in college athletics. [Tags] cultural comparison, Canada, U.S.A., American football, ice hockey, college athletics, college sports, intercollegiate athletics, cultural background, the U.S. Declaration of Independence, wind of freedom, extracurricular activities, college faculties, violence control, villagers’ game, working man’s sport

Cultural Comparison: Canadian Ice Hockey vs. American Football, Part IV

[Author] Vincent A. (ELC Research International) The football became the leading competition in college athletics because of its physical power. However, football was really, at that time, a violent sport and casualties occurred frequently. The university faculties had to struggle to resolve the problems caused by the brutality of the football and they faced various dilemmas such as an antinomy that the more college athletics expanded, the more the mission of the university in society became difficult to achieve; the conflict between amateurism and both commercialization and professionalization of sports; and the reality that, while the faculties wanted to control every detail of the students’ activity, they had no spare time to administer the students’ extracurricular activities, or special knowledge of how to do it. [Tags] cultural comparison, Canada, U.S.A., American football, ice hockey, college athletics, college sports, intercollegiate athletics, cultural background, the U.S. Declaration of Independence, wind of freedom, extracurricular activities, college faculties, violence control, villagers’ game, working man’s sport

Cultural Comparison: Canadian Ice Hockey vs. American Football, Part V

[Author] Vincent A. (ELC Research International) For college students who were forced to live an oppressive life, extracurricular activities were the only thing they found in their college life to which they could devote themselves for personal reasons. Those students who loved college athletics, and the idea of making full use of their physical power so intensely, had to spend their surplus energy in extra hours in ways other than games or exercises. It caused great distress to college faculties. Eventually, an incident called the “Football Crisis,” which is very famous in the history of American sports, occurred. It triggered founding an inter-institutional committee attempting to eliminate the brutality of football. [Tags] cultural comparison, Canada, U.S.A., American football, ice hockey, college athletics, college sports, intercollegiate athletics, cultural background, the U.S. Declaration of Independence, wind of freedom, extracurricular activities, college faculties, violence control, villagers’ game, working man’s sport, inter-institutional committee, football crisis, NCAA, National College Athletic Association, Walter Camp

Cultural Comparison: Canadian Ice Hockey vs. American Football, Part VI

[Author] Vincent A. (ELC Research International) For college students who were forced to live an oppressive life, extracurricular activities were the only thing they found in their college life to which they could devote themselves for personal reasons. Those students who loved college athletics, and the idea of making full use of their physical power so intensely, had to spend their surplus energy in extra hours in ways other than games or exercises. It caused great distress to college faculties. Eventually, an incident called the “Football Crisis,” which is very famous in the history of American sports, occurred. It triggered founding an inter-institutional committee attempting to eliminate the brutality of football. [Tags] cultural comparison, Canada, U.S.A., American football, ice hockey, college athletics, college sports, intercollegiate athletics, cultural background, the U.S. Declaration of Independence, wind of freedom, extracurricular activities, college faculties, violence control, villagers’ game, working man’s sport, inter-institutional committee, football crisis, NCAA, National College Athletic Association, Walter Camp

Cultural Comparison: Canadian Ice Hockey vs. American Football, Part VII

[Author] Vincent A. (ELC Research International) David Gordon-MacDonald, the proofreader of the articles, has given a quite interesting suggestion about the origin of Canadian ice hockey, as follows: Ice hockey started on rinks made on village ponds and icy back yards. It was a community game but also a game played by people who considered themselves, in many cases, rough and ready frontiersmen. So, physicality was always a great part of the game. Hockey has always been a working man’s sport and did not have the early intervention from the educated classes that many other sports had. For instance, the British working man’s game, soccer football, had the first version of its current rules written down by a nobleman. That kind of thing never happened in village sport of ice hockey. [Tags] cultural comparison, Canada, U.S.A., American football, ice hockey, college athletics, college sports, intercollegiate athletics, cultural background, the U.S. Declaration of Independence, wind of freedom, extracurricular activities, college faculties, violence control, villagers’ game, working man’s sport, inter-institutional committee, football crisis, NCAA, National College Athletic Association, Walter Camp

The Truth of Victoria Oriental Home [2]

[Author] Michiko Midge Ayukawa, PhD ◆Why Do People Hesitate to Speak About Oriental Home? — People in the Nikkei community wouldn’t like to speak about the Oriental Home openly. The reason might be because of its beginning as a shelter for Chinese prostitutes, and that later, a few Japanese prostitutes had also been cared for there. The common opinion appears to be that those women who sought shelter there had been prostitutes; thus, a low form of womanhood that brought shame to the Japanese race. However, they were few in number. The majority of the women who sought help there were desperate, and they were brave. To go outside the community was frowned upon but few fellow Japanese could lend a helping hand or were willing to. [Tags] Oriental Home, Canada, BC, British Columbia, Victoria, Orientals, Chinese, Japanese, Women, Rescue Shelter, Methodist, United Church, picture brides, picture marriage, Pearl Harbor, internment, Mieko Amano, Chikara To Kihin, Strength and Grace, prostitute, Tairiku Nippo, Shohei Nagata, Brothel in Canada, Tomoko Makabe, Ross Bay Cemetery

error: Content is protected !!